Roofing Terms

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W 

A

 

Algae Discoloration - Roof discoloration caused by algae growth

 

Alligatoring - When bitumen cracks on a built-up roof

 

Aluminum - Metal used in roofing because of its slow rusting time

 

Ambient Temperature - Temperature of air in a climate

 

American Method - A process involving the installation of shingles that lie parallel to the rake

 

Application Rate - Quantity of materials applied divided by unit

 

Asphalt - Drying agent used during roof material manufacturing

 

Asphalt Felt - Felt coated in asphalt 

 

Asphalt Roofing Cement - Flashing cement or mastic 

 

ASTM - American Society For Testing and Materials 

 

Attic - Open space above ceiling often used for storage


 

B

 

Back-Nailing - When the back portion of roofing material is covered by a top layer

 

Ballast - Anchoring material that used gravity to keep members in place

 

Base Ply - Bottom ply of roofing system

 

Base Sheet - Coated felt in a multiple-ply roof system

 

Batten - Cap or cover

 

Batten Seam - A metal structure built around the wood base 

 

C

 

Camber - A slight rounded curve of an area, for example, a prestressed concrete deck

 

Canopy - Overhanging roof structure

 

Cap Sheet - A particle surface covered sheet

 

CCF - 100 cubic feet

 

Cement - Substance which binds to surface together

 

Course - Horizontal unit of roofing

 

 

D

 

Dead Level - Section of a roof without a pitch

 

Deck/Sheathing - The surface, usually plywood or oriented strand board (OSB), to which roofing materials are applied.

 

Deflection - Downward shift of a structural component

 

Dormer - A small structure projecting from a sloped roof, usually with a window.

 

Double Coverage - application of two complete layers of roof shingles

 

Downspout - A pipe that transfers rainwater from a roof to a drain or the ground level

 

Drip Course - First course of shingles which overhang the edge

 

Drip Edge - Metal strip used on eaves and takes which allows water runoff

 

 

E

 

Eave - Lower edges of a sloped roof 

 

Eave Flashing - Additional layer applied at the eaves, helps prevent damage from weather

 

Exposure - The portion of the roofing exposed to the weather

 

Exposure I Grade Plywood - Specific type of plywood for exterior use

 

F

 

Fascia - Flat board that runs along the outer edge of a roof

 

Felt - Sheet of asphalt material used as an underlayment for a roof deck 

 

FHA - The Federal Housing Authority 

 

Fiberglass Mat - Strong mats used in roofing material  

 

Flashing - Component used to prevent access of water into a building

 

Flat Roof - A constant leveled roof

 

FM - Factory Mutual Research Corporation 


 

G

 

Gable - Upper portion of a sidewall which comes to a triangular point

 

Gable Roof - Traditional styled roof 

 

Galvanize - Coat with zinc

 

Galvanized Steel - Steel coated with zinc 

 

Granule - Granules help keep UV rays off of the shingles asphalt coating, making them more fire resistant

 

Gutter - A shallow trough fixed beneath the edge of a roof for carrying off rainwater

 

H

 

HEX Shingles - Shingles that appear as hexagons after installed

 

Hip - External angle formed in the intersection of two roof planes

 

Hip Legs - Down-sloped ridges on a hip roof

 

Hip Roof - Roof inclined by planes to form multiple hips 

 

Hipped End - The triangular faces of a roof

 

 

Impact Resistant - A roofing material made to resist damage from falling objects

 

Insulation - Material used to maintain a specific range of temperature in a building

 

Interlocking Shingles - Shingles attached to one another providing wind resistance

 

Internal Pressure - Pressure inside a structure 

 

IRWC - Institute of Roofing and Waterproofing Consultants

 

 

J

 

Joint Tape - Specific tape used to seal joints between multiple insulation boards

 

Joist - Small timers, wood, metal beams parallel from each wall to suppose a roof

 

K

 

Kick-Out Flashing - Type of flashing installed at the edge of a roof which redirects water into the gutter

 

Knot - surface irregularities in materials 


 

L

 

Lap - Overlap of the surface of multiple roofing materials 

 

Lap Cement - An asphalt-based roof cement made to stick overlapping piles or asphalt roll roofing

 

Laminated Shingles - Shingle strips containing multiple layers to create an extra coat of thickness

 

Low Pitch Areas - A low pitch roof

 

Low Slopes - Roof that consists of roof pitch less than 4/12 

 

Low Slope Application - Application method in applying shingles on slopes 



 

M

 

Mansard Roof - Type of roof which contained no gables

 

Mats - Term used for the base material of shingles and other rolled products

 

Membrane - Flexible material, with primary function as waterproofing assembly

 

Mildew - Superficial coating of organic materials generated by fungi 

 

Mineral-Surfaced Roofing - Granules covered asphalt shingles 

 

Mopping - Application of hot asphalt using a hand mop or applicator 

 

Mortar - A mixture of limestone, water, mortar,  and sand used in securing chimney’s bricks

 

 

N

 

Nailing - Application of nails 

 

Nail Pop - Not fully driven nail sitting up off the deck

 

Nesting - Installation of the second layer of shingles to avoid shingle cupping

 

Normal Slope Application - Method of applying shingles between 4 to 21 inches per foot

 

No-Cutout Shingles - A single tab of shingles with no cutouts

 

NRCA -  National Roofing Contractors Association

 

O

 

Offset - Distance between the edge of a shingle course and the next shingle course

 

Open Valley - A type of roofing style where the steep-slope roofing on either side are trimmed alongside the valley, exposing the valley flash.

 

Organic Shingle - Organic shingles are created by using an organic mat that is saturated by asphalt to make the shingle waterproof

 

Over Driven - Overly applying force to roofing material causing it to break 


 

P

 

Parapet Wall - Wall built along the roof, extending above the roof 

 

Penetrations - Anything that penetrates a roof deck, such as, vents, pipes, chimneys, stacks

Pitch - Roof pitch (or slope) tells you how many inches the roof rises for every 12 inches in depth.

 

Ply - Roofing layer

 

Plumbing Vent - Plumbing pipes which project past a roof plane

 

Prevailing Wind - Common direct of wind

 

Primer - Asphalt-based primer that will be placed to bond with asphalt sheets or other materials

 

 

Q

 

Quick-Setting Cement - Asphalt-based cement used to bond strip shingles to its course

 

R

 

Rake - Inclining edge of a sloped roof 

 

Ridge - The highest point of a roof

 

Ridge Cap - Material applied over the highest point of a roof 

 

Ridge Course - Top layer of roofing materials covering the ridge 

 

Ridge Vent - Ventilator on the ridge 

 

Rise - Vertical distance of the roof 

 

Roof Assembly - An assembly of roof components

 

Run - Horizontal distance of the roof

 

S

 

Saddle - Small raised structure assembled to direct surface water to drain 

 

Shading - Difference in surface color occurring as a result of operations

 

Slope - The roofs angle of incline 

 

Soffit - Finished underside of eaves containing holes

 

Span - Horizontal measurement from one eave to another

 

Square - Roofing measurement covering 100 square feet 

 

Static Vent - Vents installed by the ridge of a roof 

 

Step Flashing - Application method used where the sloping roof plane meets a vertical surface 

 

Synthetic Underlayments - Water-resistant material installed on a rood

 

 

T

 

Tab - An exposed portion of shingles defined by cut-outs

 

Telegraphing - Reflection of the uneven surface beneath shingles

 

Top Lap - Portion of the roof shielded by the following course after being installed 

 

Transitions - When roof plane ties into another while having different slopes

 

Truss - Framework used at regular intervals 


 

U

 

UL - Underwriters Laboratories Inc.

 

UL Label - Label on the packaging indicating the level of resistance of asphalt roofing

 

Under Drive - A not fully driven change in color  to shingles  

 

Underlayment - Synthetic material used to provide protection of roof from the deck 

 

 

V

 

Valley - Internal angle formed by two sloping roof planes intersecting 

 

Vapor Retarder - Material used to prevent water vapor passage 

 

Vent - Outlet for air

 

Vent Pipe - A pipe over a waste pipe or soil pipe that allows gas to escape from the system

 

 

W

 

Weathering - Change inefficiency caused by exposure to outside factors

 

Weep Holes - Tiny openings that allow accumulated water to drain

 

Wind Uplift - A force of the wind at roof edges or roof peaks that cause a drop in air pressure above the surface of the roof, which causes the membrane to pull away from the deck

 

Wood Sheathing - A board or panel material used to assemble roofs on residential and commercial construction  

 

Woven Valley - Installation method for asphalt shingles, where two intersecting roof slopes meet